Roll of the Officers and Men of the Frigate Alliance (Oct 1779)

Roll of the Officers and Men of the Frigate Alliance (Oct 1779). The Roll of the Officers and Crew of the Frigate Alliance, Captain Peter Landais, October 3d, 1779 is derived from the list of 214 men that appears on pages 146-148 of the Life and character of the Chevalier John Paul Jones authored by John Henry Sherburne (1825). Sherburne does not reference the repository of this roll. This roll was taken on the day after the frigate Alliance sailed into Texel, the deepwater port of Amsterdam, in company with the crippled Serapis under the command of John Paul Jones. The Serapis was captured just ten days prior in a celebrated but bloody engagement with the Bonhomme Richard. Shortly after this roll was taken, Landais was relieved of his command by Jones who took the Alliance as his own vessel until his return to France. The list has been annotated to include position on the ship if known and offers alternate spellings of names (in parenthesis) to assist internet browsing.

Peter Landais, Captain
James Degges, 1st Lieutenant
John Buckley, 2nd Lieutenant
James Linds, 3rd Lieutenant
John Lachar, Master
Arnold Winship, Surgeon
John Swain,
Arthur Robinson,
John Patten,
Thomas White,
Nathaniel Watson,
Alexander Moore,
James Logham,
Freight Arnold,
Park, Captain of Marines
Thomas Ehlenwood, 1st Lieutenant of Marines
James Warren, 2nd Lieutenant of Marines
Thomas Hinsdale, 2nd Master’s Mate
Thomas Fitzgerald, 3rd Master’s Mate
Lewis Larchard, 4th Master’s Mate
Isaac Carr, Master Sail-Maker
James Bragg, Master Carpenter
John Green, Carpenter’s Mate
James Peter, Gunner’s Mate
John Orr, 2nd Gunner’s Mate
Chauncey Wheeler, 3rd Gunner’s Mate
Alexander Darling, Boatswain
Thomas Taylor, 2nd Boatswain’s Mate
John Epet, 3rd Boatswain’s Mate
Joseph Frederick, 4th Boatswain’s Mate
Robert Embleton, Quarter Master
Jacob Nuttar, Quarter Master
George Fenwick, Quarter Master
James Buright, Seaman
George Cock, Seaman
James IHaslam, Seaman
John Doyle, Seaman
George Allen, Seaman
John Wethabe, Seaman
Joseph Plumer, Seaman
John Wire, Seaman
John Carebis, Seaman
John Sadler, Seaman
James Richardson, Seaman
Evan Evans, Seaman
Thomas Luce, Seaman
John Dickson, Seaman
James Rody, Seaman
Thomas Chase, Seaman
John Pall, Seaman
John Morrow, Seaman
William Shackford, Seaman
James Forrester, Seaman
Gardner Hammond, Seaman
Samuel Platt, Seaman
Charles iisbert, Seaman
Edward Flinn, Seaman
James Chester, Seaman
Thomas Duane, Seaman
Samuel Dale, Seaman
Jacob Arnold, Seaman
John M’Lean, Seaman
John Neale, Seaman
John Graves, Seaman
John Fitzgerald, Seaman
Richard Hughes, Seaman
Peter Lunt, Seaman
John Downing, Seaman
Joseph Choat, Seaman
John Thomas, Seaman
Jeremiah Perry, Seaman
John Shalf, Seaman
Stephen Turner, Seaman
Joseph Poor, Seaman
Daniel Hancock, Seaman
Samuel Nach, Seaman
Robert Smith, Seaman
John Collington, Seaman
Richard Woodron, Seaman
John Davis, Seaman
John Simpson, Seaman
Kirtland Griffing, Seaman
Charles Brown, Seaman
Henry Nalander, Seaman
John Jones, Seaman
John Diraud, Seaman
Peter Greenwood, Seaman
James Whitney, Seaman
Juba Blodgett, Seaman
Samuel Gray, Seaman
Zadock Bell, Seaman
John Fraker, Seaman
David Iron, Seaman
Patrick Martin, Seaman
John M’Gaham, Seaman
Alexander Augist, Seaman
William Barrett, Seaman
Jacob Wendel, Seaman
Thomas Bolton, Seaman
Prince Pattison, Seaman
John Sorry, Seaman
Jacob Wendel, Jr., Seaman
Owen Hewitt, Seaman
Abraham Bradley, Seaman
Thomas Jones, Seaman
Robert Calder, Seaman
Owen Rues, Seaman
Lewis Russel, Seaman
Samuel Gethel, Seaman
Benjamin Carr, Seaman
Walter Dumphy, Seaman
John Kelly, Seaman
Juba Bourne, Seaman
Michael Lyons, Seaman
Henry Callaghan, Seaman
Gibman Wails, Seaman
Elisha Ozal, Seaman
Zachariah Rodgers, Seaman
Joseph Scudman, Seaman
Ebenezer Brown, Seaman
Moses Stocking, Seaman
Nathan Dolter, Seaman
Richard Mowbray, Seaman
William Laper, Seaman
John Watkins, Seaman
Joseph Still, Seaman
John Cochran, Seaman
Hugh Fleming, Seaman
John Leggins, Seaman
Thomas Malony, Seaman
Archibald Martin, Seaman
Daniel Moncor, Seaman
James Fearam, Seaman
Thomas Bayley, Seaman
John Blean, Seaman
John Smith, Seaman
Robert Hamilton, Seaman
William Scott, Seaman
John Kelly, Seaman
William Neale, Seaman
John Lake, Seaman
Arthur Bennett, Seaman
William Taylor, Seaman
Joseph Shillaber, Seaman
Alexander Galoway, Seaman
Richard Pricand, Seaman
James Heath, Seaman
Pheones Baker, Seaman
Andrew Witham, Seaman
David Jackson, Seaman
Thomas Andrews, Seaman
Daniel Knight, Seaman
John Ambrose, Seaman
James Brown, Seaman
Barry Clarke, Seaman
Ebenezer Edwards, Seaman
Samuel Wall, Seaman
Ozere Hone, Seaman
Samuel Rodgers, Seaman
Joseph Batter, Seaman
Richard Parish, Seaman
Thomas Walsh, Seaman
Benjamin Taylor, Seaman
James Bounds, Seaman
William M’Cassett, Seaman
John Kennedy, Seaman
Thomas Cox, Seaman
John Mayne, Seaman
John Hannibal, Seaman
George Skipper, Seaman
Asher Cranded, Seaman
Peter Lyons, Seaman
Charles Ross, Seaman
John Kirks, Seaman
Samuel Lambert, Seaman
Henry Wrightington, Seaman
Richard Lunt, Seaman
Benjamin Youlin, Seaman
William Patton, Seaman
Nathaniel Warner, Seaman
William Brown, Seaman
Henry Wilson, Seaman
Stephen Rodgers, Seaman
Moses Hilton, Seaman
Luther Breck, Seaman
John Adams, Seaman
Ephraim Clark, Seaman
Abraham Simmonds, Seaman
Edward Jarvis, Seaman
Daniel Nicholson, Seaman
Samuel Carroll, Seaman
David Hoye, Seaman
Joseph Stricker, Seaman
John Dalson, Seaman
John Diamond, Seaman
Zachariah Bassett, Seaman
Paul Noyes, Seaman
Robert Ellis, Seaman
Alexander Libby, Seaman
Nathan Blodgett, Secretary
Samuel Guild, Surgeon’s Mate
James Daly, Surgeon’s Mate
John Holeky, Surgeon’s Mate
Shipman Bangs, Clerk
Fitz Pool, Clerk
Ebenezer Pild, Armourer
Chase Rodgers, Unknown
Benjamin Bowers, Unknown
Peter Adams, Cook
Michael Baptist, Cook
John Farman, 1st Sergeant of Marines
Alexander Ogden, 2nd Sergeant of Marines
Matthew Ingram, Volunteer
John Spencer, Volunteer

Posted in Frigate Alliance | Leave a comment

List of Officers and Men of the ship Ariel (Oct 1780)

List of Officers and Men of the ship Ariel (Oct 1780). The remaining crew of John Paul Jones’ former command the Bonhomme Richard, who were not discharged or now under the command of Peter Landais on the Alliance, were ordered on board the ship Ariel on 16 June 1780. The vessel left L’Orient under Jones on 5 September 1780 and departed Groix Roads on 7 October 1780. Returning to her deepwater anchorage at Groix Roads five days later on 12 October 1780, the ship came back into port at L’Orient on the following day. The last entry in her published log is dated 14 October 1780. The ship Ariel departed France again bound for America on 18 December 1780, arriving in Philadelphia on 18 February 1781. This undated List of Officers & Men belonging to the American Continental Ship of War Ariel, Commanded by the Honorable John Paul Jones, Esq is published in The logs of the Serapis- Alliance- Ariel edited by John Sanford Barnes (1911). This list of 125 men closely parallels the List of Officers & Men belonging to the Ship of War Ariel, Commanded by the Honorable John Paul Jones, Esq dated 23 September 1780 located in Box XII of the Benjamin Franklin Papers at the University of Pennsylvania with subtle differences. Also included in Box XII of the Franklin Papers are two other lists associated with the ship Ariel: an undated list of 72 French volunteers and another undated List of Officers & Men belonging to the Ship of War Ariel which includes substantial changes in the crew of the 23 September 1780 list, 37 French volunteers and ten “Gentleman Passengers.” An Alphabetical List of Officers and Men of the Ship Ariel (Oct 1780) derived from this list will be located shortly on this website and will offer alternate spellings of names (in parenthesis) to assist internet browsing.

Richard Dale, Lieutenant
Henry Lunt, Lieutenant
Samuel Stacey, Master
Matthew Maize, Purser
Amos Windship, Surgeon
John Frankford, Master’s Mate
Thomas Potter, Midshipman
Beaumont Groube, Midshipman
Nathaniel Fanning, Midshipman
Joseph Hitchborn, Midshipman
Arthur Robinson, Midshipman
Jonathan Lander, Midshipman (Run)
Khervillon, Discharged
John Peacock, Surgeon’s Mate
John Dailey, Surgeon’s Mate (Run)
Abisha Perkins, Surgeon’s Mate
John Chester, Carpenter (Run)
Jonathan Wheeler, Gunner
Daniel Russel, Steward (Run)
John Gunnison, Carpenter’s Mate
John Bourbank, Master at Arms
Edward Garrett, Boatswain’s Mate
Martin Shaw, Boatswain’s Mate
William Roberts, Cooper
John Yates, Gunner’s Mate
Preserved Syssell, Gunner’s Mate
Joseph Walker, Gunner’s Yeoman (Dd)
John Woulton, Quarter Master
Valentine Strong, Quarter Master
Elijah Johnson, Quarter Gunner
John Down, Quarter Gunner
William Clarke, Quarter Gunner
Thomas Austin, Quarter Gunner
Thomas Knight, Carpenter’s Mate
John Handerham Carpenter’s Mate
William Priest, Carpenter’s Mate
Edward Cooney, Seaman
William Pool, Seaman
Benjamin Stubbs, Seaman
Lawrence Furlong, Seaman
John Browne, Seaman
Andrew Ryan, Seaman
William Lee, Seaman
Daniel Willott, Seaman
John Wilson, Seaman
John Mosey, Seaman
Gerlano Bairdo, Seaman
Antonio Sponza, Seaman
Pier Loeby, Seaman (Run, Aug 5)
Andrew Markhouse, Seaman (Hoste)
Pedro Ambregue, Seaman
Antonio Mazzingay, Seaman
Augustino Martino, Seaman
Bernardo Jo Vera, Seaman
Thomas Golligan, Seaman
Richard Stephens, Seaman
John Duboy, Seaman (Run, Aug 10)
Harry Tommy, Seaman (Run, Sept 14)
Louis Groa, Seaman
John Obrey, Seaman
Joseph Antoine, Seaman
Aaron Goodwin, Ordinary Seaman
George Johnston, Ordinary Seaman
Samuel Matthews, Ordinary Seaman
Daniel Swain, Ordinary Seaman
John Rudderford, Ordinary Seaman
Peter Nuddle, Ordinary Seaman
Richard Wilson, Ordinary Seaman
John Hattin, Ordinary Seaman
John Ungey, Ordinary Seaman
Lewis Lennard, Ordinary Seaman
Dominique Portuguese, Ordinary Seaman
Joseph Morea, Ordinary Seaman
Lewis Marlin, Ordinary Seaman
Jacob Henry, Ordinary Seaman
Francois Bullon, Ordinary Seaman
John Thomas, Ordinary Seaman
Amos Wait, Ordinary Seaman
John Martin, Ordinary Seaman (Run)
Joanna Cushero, Ordinary Seaman
Jean Romaine, Ordinary Seaman
Andrew Roach (Oct 7)
Michael McGraw (Oct 18)
John Thompson, Landsman
William McCullock, Landsman
Charles Riley, Landsman
John Warren, Landsman
Isaih Jordan, Landsman
Nicholas Caldwell, Landsman
Lewis Pastillo, Landsman
Alexander Mayson, Landsman
Vinun Marc, Landsman
Pier Villerett, Landsman
Gulliam Langlois, Landsman
Noehauless, Landsman
James Makenzy, Cripple
John Jordan, Cripple
Joseph Brussen, Cripple
Abraham Martell, Servant
Antoine Jeremy, Servant
Charles Priley, Servant
Charles Steward, Servant
Samuel Getchell, Boy
John Wier, Boy
John Dupee, Boy
Samuel Gray, Boy
James Chester, Boy (Run)
James Mahany, Boy (Run)
John Duffy, Boy
John Hackett, Boy
Elijah Middleton, Boy
William Ears, Boy
Charles Glover, Boy, Captain’s Clerk
John Gilbrin, Boy
Tusan Lucas, Boy
John Mai, Boy
Joseph Cushon, Boy (Crossed Out)
Samuel Hammon, Boy
Aaron Burges, Boy
Louis Cushon, Boy (Crossed Out)
Jacque Blorga, Boy
Joseph Courdavieta, Boy
Titzerre, Boy
Robert Cudriaux, Boy
Claud Le Maitre

Posted in Ship of War Ariel | Leave a comment

List of Officers and Men of the ship Ariel (Undated)

List of Officers and Men of the ship Ariel (Undated). The List of Officers & Men belonging to the Ship of War Ariel, Commanded by the Honorable John Paul Jones, Esq (Undated) was transcribed by Joseph Ross in 2011. This list of 112 officers and men, 37 French volunteers and ten “Gentleman Passengers” is located in Box XII of the Benjamin Franklin Papers at the University of Pennsylvania. Included in Box XII of the Franklin Papers are two other lists associated with the ship Ariel: an undated list of 72 French volunteers including 56 in active service and a second List of Officers & Men belonging to the Ship of War Ariel dated 23 September 1780. This list includes substantial differences from both the undated List of Officers & Men belonging to the American Continental Ship of War Ariel, Commanded by the Honorable John Paul Jones, Esq published in The logs of the Serapis- Alliance- Ariel edited by John Sanford Barnes (1911) and the 23 September 1780 list in the Franklin Papers. Other than officers, most of the crew are not differentiated in this list between seamen, ordinary seamen, landsman and boys. Careful examination of the list however shows the order of crew common to both lists remaining substantially the same, making rates easily identifiable by examination of the other extant lists. An Alphabetical List of Officers and Men of the Ship Ariel (Undated) derived from this list will be located shortly on this website and will offer alternate spellings of names (in parenthesis) to assist internet browsing.

Richard Dale, Lieutenant
Henry Lunt, Lieutenant
Samuel Stacey, Master
Matthew Mase, Purser
Amos Windship, Surgeon
John Franksford, Master’s Mate
Thomas Potter, Master’s Mate
Beaumont Groube, Midshipman
Arthur Robinson, Midshipman
John Peacock, Surgeon’s Mate
Abisha Perkins, Surgeon’s Mate
Charles Glover, Captain’s Clerk
De’ Lavollette, Captain’s Clerk
Jonathan Wheeler, Gunner
John Gunnison, Master Carpenter
John Bourbanks, Master at Arms
John Watson or Watton, Steward’s Mate
Edward Garrett, Boatswain’s Mate
John Lawrence, Boatswain’s Mate
William Roberts, Cooper
John Gates, Gunner’s Mate
Preserved Syssell, Gunner’s Mate
John Woulton, Quarter Master
Valentine Strong, Quarter Master
Elijah Johnson, Quarter Gunner
John Down, Quarter Gunner
William Clarke, Quarter Gunner
Thomas Austin, Quarter Gunner
Thomas Knight, Carpenter’s Crew
John Handerham, Carpenter’s Crew
William Priest, Carpenter’s Crew
Edward Cooney, Seaman
William Pool, Seaman
Benjamin Stubbs, Seaman
Lawrence Furlong, Seaman
John Brown
Andrew Ryan
William Lee
John Wilson
John Mosey
Antonio Sponza
Antonio Masingay
Thomas Golligan
Richard Stephens
Joseph Antoine
John McDonald
John McKenzie
John Robertson
Dudley Wright
John Garner
Joseph Moria
Andrew Roach
Robert Thomas
Thomas Burns
Frederick Wagenor
John Seaburg
William Whittham
David O’Hara
John McDonald
James Pinner
Samuel Cavender
Michael Hoseman
Charles Ward
John Walker
John Hawkins
Ezekiel Hibbs
Daniel Wingate
John Murphy
Matthew M. Castney
John Marshall
John Carroll
George Johnston
Samuel Matthews
Daniel Swain
John Rutherford
Peter Nuddle
Richard Wilson
Lewis Lennard
Lewis Martin
John Obrey
Vincent Marc
Guilliam Langlois
Jacob Henry
John Thomas
Amos Wait
Johanna Chusero
Jean Romaino
John Thompson
William McCullock
Charles Riley
John Warren
Nicholas Caldwell
Antony Jeremy
Abraham Martell
John Weir
John Dupee
Samuel Gray
James Mahanny
John Duffy
John Hackett
Thomas Waterson
William Ears
John Hall
Elijah Middleton
John Mai
Jaque Blorge
Joseph Curderica
Jusa Lucas
Charles Priley, Captain of Stewards
James Mackenzy, Cripple
John Jordon, Cripple
Joseph Brussen, Cripple

37 French Volunteers

Gentlemen Passengers
Samuel Wharton, Esq Sr.
Mr. Wharton, Jr.
Captain Hutchins
Monsier Demarssons
Mr. Bush
Mr. Douglas
Mr. Dobson
Mr. Richards
Mr. Taylor
Mr. Clarke

Posted in Ship of War Ariel | Leave a comment

List of Officers and Men of the ship Ariel (Sept 1780)

List of Officers and Men of the ship Ariel (Sept 1780). The List of Officers & Men belonging to the Ship of War Ariel, Commanded by the Honorable John Paul Jones, Esq 23 September 1780 located in Box XII of the Benjamin Franklin Papers at the University of Pennsylvania was transcribed by Joseph Ross in 2011. This list of 118 men closely parallels the undated List of Officers & Men belonging to the American Continental Ship of War Ariel, Commanded by the Honorable John Paul Jones, Esq published in The logs of the Serapis- Alliance- Ariel edited by John Sanford Barnes (1911) with subtle differences. Included in Box XII of the Franklin Papers are two other lists associated with the ship Ariel: an undated list of 72 French volunteers and another undated List of Officers & Men belonging to the Ship of War Ariel which includes substantial changes in the crew of the 23 September 1780 list, 37 French volunteers and ten “Gentleman Passengers.” An Alphabetical List of Officers and Men of the Ship Ariel (1780) derived from this list will be located shortly on this website and will offer alternate spellings of names (in parenthesis) to assist internet browsing.

Richard Dale, 1st Lieutenant
Henry Lunt, 2nd Lieutenant
Samuel Stacey, Master
Matthew Maise, Purser
Amos Windship, Surgeon
John Frankford, Master’s Mate
Thomas Potter, Midshipman
Beaumont Groube, Midshipman
Nathaniel Fanning, Midshipman
Joseph Hitchburn, Midshipman
Arthur Robinson, Midshipman
John Peacock, Surgeon’s Mate
Abigah Perkins, Surgeon’s Mate
Jonathan Wheeler, Gunner
John Gunnison, Carpenter
John Bourbanks, Master at Arms
Edward Garrett, Boatswain’s Mate
Martin Shaw, Boatswain’s Mate
William Roberts, Cooper
John Yates, Gunner’s Mate
Preserved Syssel, Gunner’s Mate
John Woulton, Quarter Master
Valentine Strong, Quarter Master
Elijah Johnson, Quarter Gunner
John Down, Quarter Gunner
William Clarke, Quarter Gunner
Thomas Austin, Quarter Gunner
Thomas Knight, Carpenter’s Mate
John Handrahan, Carpenter’s Mate
William Priest, Carpenter’s Mate
Edward Cooney, Seaman
William Poole, Seaman
Benjamin Stubbs, Seaman
Laurence Furlong, Seaman
John Brown, Seaman
Andrew Ryan, Seaman
William Lee, Seaman
Daniel Willot, Seaman
John Wilson, Seaman
John Mosey, Seaman
Gerlano Bairdo, Seaman
Antonia Sprunge, Seaman
Pedro Ambrogue, Seaman
Antonio Maringay, Seaman
Augustino Martino, Seaman
Bernardo Jo Vera, Seaman
Thomas Golligan, Seaman
Richard Stevens, Seaman
Louis Groa, Seaman
John Obrey, Seaman
Joseph Antoine, Seaman
Aaron Goodwin, Ordinary Seaman
George Johnston, Ordinary Seaman
Samuel Matthews, Ordinary Seaman
Daniel Swain, Ordinary Seaman
John Rudderford, Ordinary Seaman
Peter Nuddle, Ordinary Seaman
Richard Wilson, Ordinary Seaman
John Hattin, Ordinary Seaman
John Ungey, Ordinary Seaman
Lewis Leonard, Ordinary Seaman
Dominique Portse, Ordinary Seaman
Michael McGraw, Ordinary Seaman
Joseph Moreaux, Ordinary Seaman
Lewis Martin, Ordinary Seaman
Jacob Henry, Ordinary Seaman
John Thomas, Ordinary Seaman
Amos Wait, Ordinary Seaman
John Martin, Ordinary Seaman
Joanna Cushero, Ordinary Seaman
Jeane Romaine, Ordinary Seaman
John Thompson, Landsman
William McCullock, Landsman
Charles Riley, Landsman
John Warren, Landsman
Isaiah Jordan, Landsman
Nicholas Colwell, Landsman
Lewis Partillo, Landsman
Alexander Mayson, Landsman
Vincent Marque, Landsman
Pier Villerot, Landsman
Guillam Langlois, Landsman
Noehauless, Landsman
Samuel Getchel, Boy
John Wier, Boy
John Dupee, Boy
Samuel Grey, Boy
John Duffy, Boy
John Hackett, Boy
Elijah Middleton, Boy
William Ears, Boy
Charles Glover, Boy, Captain’s Clerk
John Gilbrin, Boy
Juba Luce, Boy
John Mai, Boy
Joseph Cushon, Boy
Samuel Hammon, Boy
Aaron Burges, Boy
Jacque Blorgue, Boy
Joseph Coverdavait, Boy
James McKinsey, Cripple
John Jordan, Cripple
Joseph Brusen, Cripple
Charles Priley, Servant
Charles Steward, Servant
Abraham Murtell, Servant
Antony Jeremy, Servant
John Dailey, Surgeon’s Mate, Deserted
Jonathan Lander, Midshipman, Deserted
John Chester, Carpenter, Deserted
Daniel Russel, Steward, Deserted
Pier Looby, Seaman, Deserted
Harry Tommy, Seaman, Deserted
Francis Lambert, Seaman, Deserted
James Mahaney, Seaman, Deserted
James Chester, Seaman, Deserted
Andrew Markhouse, At the Hospital
Francois Bullion, At the Hospital

Posted in Ship of War Ariel | Leave a comment

Rev. Edward Brooks, Chaplain

Edward Brooks. The Rev. Edward Brooks is one of five Continental Navy Chaplains listed in Mess Night Traditions by Charles J. Gibowicz (2007). Son of Samuel Brooks (1700-1768) and Mary Boutwell (1698-1772), Edward was born on the ancestral homestead at Medford, MA on 31 October 1733. Some sources note 4 November 1733 as his birthdate, however, it is suspected that this later date is his baptism. Brooks graduated from Harvard College in 1757, serving after his studies as Harvard’s librarian from 1758 to 1760. Brooks was ordained on 4 July 1764 at North Yarmouth, ME succeeding Rev. Nicholas Loring who died the preceding year, as the third settled minister of that congregation at the “Church Under the Ledge”. Details and participants of Brooks’ ordination service appear in the 12 July 1764 edition of the Boston News Letter. The sermon preached that day by Dedham minister Rev. Jason Haven is still extant. Just a couple of months after his ordination, the Reverend Edward Brooks was married at North Yarmouth to Abigail Brown on 23 September 1764. Abigail, daughter of Haverhill minister Rev. John Brown and Joanna Cotton, was born in 1732. Abigail Brown Brooks bore four children; Cotton Brown born 1765 and died 1834; Mary born 1766 and died 1839; Peter Chardon born 1767 and died 1849; and Joanna Cotton born 1772 and died 1841. The older three children were born in North Yarmouth while the youngest was born in Medford. The Brooks’ third child was named in honor of Edward’s intimate friend and Harvard classmate, lawyer Peter Chardon who died young at Charlotte Town, Dominica in the West Indies just months before the boy’s birth on 6 January 1767. By the time of Peter Chardon Brooks’ birth, serious theological differences were already evident between the reverend and his congregation at North Yarmouth. His disaffected parishioners’ petition for change is recorded in Life and Letters of Phillips Brooks by Alexander Viets Griswold Allen (1900) ; “we humbly conceive that your preaching among us has not been agreeably to Calvinistic usage and therefore disagreeable to the foundation that we understood you settled with us upon and also disagreeable to our sentiments, and therefore matter of grievance to us.” After unsuccessful attempts were made to resolve the disagreement, the Rev. Edward Brooks was advised by an ecclesiastical council in November 1768 “to accept fifty pounds legal money and be dismissed”. Heeding the sound advice, the em-battered parson resigned his charge in March 1769. Also recorded in Allen’s Life and Letters of Phillips Brooks is the reverend’s request to be dismissed from his call at North Yarmouth, clothed in Christian grace and charity, “I now request you would grant me a dismission from my relation to you as your pastor, so that I may be relieved from my ordination vows to serve you in that capacity. May God sanctify it to you and to me and all other dispensations of his Providence. May you under his divine direction and blessing succeed in getting another pastor to be set over you who shall feed you with spiritual knowledge and understanding, who shall preach the Gospel to you in that plainness and simplicity in which it was left by Christ your teacher and Lord. May peace be restored and established among you, and may you be built up in faith and in holiness and in comfort with eternal life.” William D. Williamson in an article published in Collections of the Maine Historical Society (1895) sums up the sad situation with the comment, “Rev. Mr. Brooks was a very worthy man, perhaps better fitted for labor in the world than in the church.” Eschewing any idea of accepting the charge of another congregation and returning to his hometown of Medford later that year, Edward Brooks purchased land on the west side of Grove Street from John Francis, Jr. and turned his attention to farming. He was succeeded in the pastorate at the First Congregational Church of North Yarmouth by the Rev. Tristram Gilman on 8 December 1769. While residing in Medford, Brooks occasionally preached as pulpit supply for the Rev. Ebenezer Turell at the newly constructed First Parish Church on High Street. The Rev. Brooks’ opposition to orthodox Calvinist theology did not disappear with his retreat to a life of laity in Medford. When the Rev. David Osgood was called to succeed Turell as pastor there in 1774, Brooks and others in his family tenaciously opposed the strict Calvinist preacher. However according to Allen in Life and Letters of Phillips Brooks, when Osgood was finally settled, “it is to their credit… when their resistance failed, a letter was sent to the new pastor, signed by them, declaring that their opposition was over, they acquiesced in the situation, and stood ready to attend his ministry and aid him in his work”. Commenting on the contrast between the Rev. Edward Brooks’ perceived failure in Christian ministry and his exemplary military service during the Revolution; Allen further theorizes “in his devotion to his country he may have found consolation for the humiliation of his dismissal from the service of the church”. Although his vocation might suggest a more peaceable role, Edward Brooks like others in his family- Captain John Brooks, Lieutenant Caleb Brooks and Thomas Brooks- was quick to respond to the hot action around Concord Bridge on 19 April 1775. According to the testimony of Peter Chardon Brooks in History of the Town of Medford, the Rev. Edward Brook was a “Son of Liberty”. His father wrote Peter, went to Lexington “on horseback, with his gun on his shoulder and in his full-bottomed wig”. The youngster remembered well, “I was eight years old, and frightened enough at hearing the guns at Menotomy, and seeing them glisten, from our garret-window. Those were times that tried men’s souls, but not their purses: for they had none. They were as poor as rats.” In his writings almost fifty years later in 1824, the Rev. Joseph Thaxter also recollects details of the day; “the Rev. Edward Brooks, who lived at Medford, got intelligence of a small party going with relief to meet the British; they had a wagon-load; Mr Brooks mustered a few men, waylaid them near West Cambridge meetinghouse, and shot the horses, and wounded the lieutenant who commanded them, took several prisoners before the British came up, and retired”. The reverend’s participation in the capture of the convoy of provisions at Menotomy destined to provide relief for British regulars marching up the Concord Road occurred just a mile from his own house. After the Redcoats retreated through Menotomy toward Boston, Brooks is credited with saving the life of an enemy lieutenant left behind. The preacher is said to have conveyed the injured officer by horseback to his home where he recuperated until his wounds healed. Lieutenant Edward Thorton Gould of His Majesty’s Own Regiment of Foot remained in the care of the Brooks family until he was exchanged for an American officer in February 1776. It is reported that even Mrs. Brooks participated in the historic events of the day, serving “food and chocolate, but no tea” from her Grove Street home to the weary but victorious returning Minutemen. It is often claimed that congregational minister Edward Brooks was the first chaplain to serve in the Continental Navy, although some evidence suggests Rev. John Reed was serving on the frigate Warren as early as February 1777. A photograph of the Marine Committee warrant appointing Brooks to serve as Chaplain for the ship Hancock dated Boston 12 April 1777 and signed by John Hancock as President of the Continental Congress appears in The History of Medford written by relative Charles Brooks and others (1885). The Hancock was one of the first thirteen frigates of the Continental Navy authorized by the Continental Congress on 13 December 1775 and was built at Newburyport, MA. The 32-gun frigate was placed under the command of Captain John Manley on 17 April 1776 and reportedly launched on 4 July 1776, the birthday of the nation. Interestingly, the day was also the twelfth anniversary of the ordination of Rev. Edward Brooks. The Hancock spent the entire winter of 1776-1777 in Boston waiting for cannon while fitting out and manning her crew. It is written that Rev. Edward Brooks joined the ship due to his poor health, a motivation which appears highly unlikely. It seems much more plausible that Brooks finally sensed a call to minister to a congregation that might accept his contemporary theology, a parish of marines and sailors going to war at sea. Five weeks after entering on board, Brooks sailed with the fleet on the Hancock’s first cruise from Boston on Wednesday 21 May 1777 on a voyage to St. George’s Bank in search of British fishing vessels. Also with the ship was fellow Harvard alum Dr. Samuel Curtis of Marlborough sailing as Surgeon. In concert with the Continental frigate Boston under the command of Hector McNeill, the Hancock captured the 28 gun British privateer Fox on 7 June 1777 in a bloody engagement. No doubt Curtis and Brooks had ample opportunity to exercise their healing gifts in the action. One month later on 8 July 1777, after being abandoned by McNeill and the Boston, the frigate Hancock along with the prize ship Fox were captured by the British 44-gun Rainbow and 32-gun Flora after a thirty-nine hour chase. Chaplain Brooks was carried to Halifax as a prisoner of war with 228 other officers and men of the frigate Hancock. While confined there on parole, Brooks contracted smallpox. According to Helen Tilden Wild in Medford in the Revolution, desperate to assist her husband, Brooks’ wife Abigail conveyed funds to him at Halifax by Captain Salter, a Tory prisoner-of-war to be exchanged there. When the cartel returned to Massachusetts, it carried a letter from the Chaplain to the Hon. James Bowdoin dated 8 November 1777 pleading for his release; as well as, for the exchange of thirteen of his room-mates. Counted among the cleric’s mates at the Halifax Barracks were Hancock Sailing Master John Diamond and 2nd Lieutenant Joseph Adams; Tarter 1st Lieutenant John Guliker and 3rd Lieutenant Oliver Reed; Freedom 2nd Lieutenant Hooper; Boston 2nd Lieutenant of Marines John Harris. Rev. Edward Brooks left Halifax on 29 January 1778 on the cartel Favorite having been exchanged for Parson Lewis, a British chaplain. Arriving home at Medford in February 1778, Brooks’ reunion with his family was tempered by the reality his “health (was) hopelessly shattered”. An image of Brooks’ Oath of Fidelity & Allegiance dated 19 June 1778 after his release from captivity is also included in The History of Medford (1903). According to its author Helen Tilden Wild, while in poor health and not able to do active service, the Rev. Edward Brooks continued the cause of the Revolution financially by contributing bounty money for new recruits. Rev. Edward Brooks died 6 May 1781 at Medford, MA at the age of forty-eight. An inventory of his estate made shortly after Brooks’ death valued his real estate, which included the farm inherited from his father along with the house and several acres of land on Grove Street purchased upon his return to Medford in 1769, at just over 1,036 pounds. His personal estate and belongings were valued at just over 421 pounds. While not a paltry sum, Freeman Hunt in Lives of American Merchants (1856) reminds us, “the state of the country at the close of the Revolutionary War was one of extreme depression, and the family of Mr. Brooks was left at his decease in narrow circumstances. Neither of the sons enjoyed the advantage of a collegiate education”. After his father’s death, second son Peter Chardon Brooks was apprenticed in the city of Boston, walking seven miles to and fro daily. In tribute to Brooks’ widow, Richard B. Coolidge in a 1927 paper delivered to the Medford Historical Society concludes, “at the death of her husband, Abigail Brooks, with the same fine spirit with which she had served the tired soldiers, brought up her four fatherless children”. Abigail Brown Brooks followed her husband in death on 29 November 1800. The couple is buried at Grave 5, 212 Oak Avenue in the Oak Grove Cemetery at Medford. Their grave marker can be viewed at: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=69330224 The couple’s oldest son Cotton Brown Brooks was to become grandfather of Bishop of Massachusetts Phillip Brooks and his three brothers, all episcopal clergymen. Second son Peter Chardon Brooks, a merchant in the marine insurance business, was to become reputedly one of the hundred wealthiest persons in American history.

Posted in Chaplains, Continental Navy Officers, Navy Wardroom, Warrant and Petty Officers | Leave a comment